Magic is the art of influencing the external world (and the
Magician's own mind) by will and imagination combined. In this
context 'imagination' is the mental faculty of forming images of
objects or entities not immediately present to the senses; 'will'
refers to the force of intention directed and focussed by the
Magic involves creating clear mental images, sustaining them by
concentration, and projecting them (by various means designed to
maintain and increase the focus) into reality. Likewise can be said
of the Christian Prayer and supplications at the altar made by
The essence of this ancient system is a belief in that the external
world reflects the inner spiritual realms, and that external
effects proceed from forces originating in the spirit realm within
which Man (Sanskrit manas, 'mind') is said to exist.
Identification and invocation of such
forces (visualised as guardian angels, demons, etc.) may thus
through imaginative demand produce desired effects.
Distracted by the trials of the material
outer realm, our inner perception is usually occluded or scattered:
successful magical working demands preparatory rites and
purifications to steady the mind, focus imagination and direct the
Stan Goochhas suggested that magic and psychic powers are
associated with the 'old brain' or cerebellum, and were
well-developed in Neanderthal man. Certainly such power seems to be
a 'lunar' or 'right-brain' faculty, or at least to be channelled
through the right-brain. If so, no surprise that 'magic' is denied
by left-brain 'solar' reason, which proceeds by deduction and
manipulation, not be induction and imagination. Science and magic
both aim to control the natural world but proceed by means as
different as day and night. Perhaps in time each will see the other
Much reference is made in 'occultism' books to the theories and
practices of the esteemed psychologist Carl Gustav
was born at Kesswil on Lake Constance and was the son of a
clergyman. In 1879 the family moved to Klein-Huningen on the Rhine,
where at school he was nicknamed 'Father Abraham'.
student at Zurich Jung was angered by the 'lack of ordinary,
healthy curiosity' on the part of 'men in command of religious, and
scientific and philosophic heights'. He sensed the danger of the
European split between religion (faith) and science that denied
individual and subjective meaning.
analysed some 67,000 dreams before beginning to theorise about
their meaning and function. Even so, and despite the rigour of his
observations, for much of his life he was dismissed as a
supported Sigmund Freud despite doubts as the Freud's concept of
sex as the main subconscious driving force, but where Freud reacted
against repression of the sex-drive, Jung aimed to transform it by
reconciling opposites which Freud saw as permanent and
Jung belongs to the Analyticalschool of Psychology and sees the
psyche as a whole of personality ... the totality of all psychic
processes, conscious and unconscious.
embraces all thought, feeling and behaviour and helps the
individual adapt to the social and physical environment: the term
psyche, from which the term Psychology derives, also includes what
is normally called 'soul'. And thus the person is seen as a whole
from birth, and personality is not acquired piece by piece through
learning and experience (as in Behaviourist, Humanistic, Cognitive,
and Neuro-Biological psychological theories and practices).
Jung's work can be seen in his writings on Memories, Dreams and
Reflections; Man and his Symbols; Collected Works; and Dreams. And
other works relating to Jung include Jung, and the Story of our
Time by Laurens van der Post; and The Gnostic Jung and the Seven
Sermons to the Dead by Stephan A. Hoeller.
Essential to Jung's work are the Collective Unconscious and
Archetypes. Jung sees archetypes (symbols) such as the 'Mother' as
a collective entity of the various 'goddesses' worshipped
since time immemorial.
Wizards, and other Mystical Thought
Probably the oldest school of mystical thought is the Qabalah (also
spelt Kabbalah, Cabbala, Cabala, Cabbalah, Kabbala and Kabala)
which, according to Rabbinical tradition was first taught to Adam
in Eden by the Archangel Gabriel.
Hebrew root QBL signifies 'to receive'; thus the body of teaching
known as Qabalah means 'the received'. Jewish in origin, the
profound and complex body of knowledge assumed Persian, Egyptian,
Grecian, Gnostic, and Neoplatonist elements during its
transmitted orally until 1280AD when Spanish Qabalist Moses ben
Shemtob de Leonissued the Zepher ha Zohar (Book of Splendour). This
vast commentary on the Pentateuch was said to be the work of the
legendary Rabbi Simeon bar Yohai, who had died in estatic trance
some 1200 years earlier.
Departing from orthodox Judaism, the Zohar provided a basis for the
growth of Qabalah into a system so flexible and sophisticated that
today it lies at the heart of the Western Mystery Tradition.
The Kabbalah is not an individual book or even a spcific
compilation of doctrine, although certain texts are almost always
Kabbalah is the collected thought and the never-ending
interpretation of many of the occult writings from Alchemy,
Greco-Roman Magic, Assyrian Magic, the Chaldeans, Judeo-Christian
mysticism (including books purportedly written by Solomon and
Talmudic testaments), eastern influences (such as the precepts of
Zoroaster) and Egyptian Magic.
the way in which the supernaturalinteracts with the natural world
and how the infinite universe interacts with the finite world. It
also attempts to reveal the true, inner meanings of the ancient
Even before the creation of the Kabbalah, Jewish tradition and lore
was filled with mysticism. A Samaritan legend claims that the
source of sorcery was a Book of Signs, which was delivered to Adam
after the Fall. In Jewish mythology, the arcane text is known as
the Book of Adam or the Book of Razel, the latter title being the
one most often mentioned in cabalistic texts.
The book of Enoch in the Bible suggests that sorcery was thought to
humans by two 'fallen Angels' named Uzza and Azael. Azael was
responsible for teaching women Witchcraft and the art of cosmetics
Although wizardry and sorcery was forbidden in Jewish law, the
practice was endured if the magician called upon Angels to fight
against the 'forces of evil'. Thus, from the earliest
Judeo-Christian ethics, there arose a distinction between White
Magic and Black Magic.
Cabalistic legend suggests that Moses had
already been trained in Egyptian Magic in the court of Ramses
of Tobitin Catholic Bibles tells the story of the demon
Ashmodaeus falling in love with Sarah, and there are many
references to consulting witches in the Bible.
perhaps the greatest Jewish mystic of Old Testament times was King
is credited with writing, among many other tracts, two of the most
famous magical Grimoires ... The Greater Key of Solomon, which
calls upon God in his unspoken names (Elohim and Jehovah (the
Tetratrammaton - IHVH)); and the Legemeton ... The Lesser Key of
Solomon, in which the 72 demons are described.
of Life is seen as the Sephiroth ... a system of states or
being with their 22 interconnecting paths through which the soul
ascends until it reaches the state of limitless undifferentiated
being ... the Ain Soph.
In much of the pagan Arabic world, the jinn (also seen as jinne,
jinnee, genie, or genii) were considered to be malevolent, dark or
hostile supernatural forces. Among the Muslims, or Mohammedan
culture, it was though that, although the jinn could be evil, they
were more often good Spirits, closer in concept to that of the
'Guardian Angel'. Although the jinn were independent sprites,
wizards and sorcerers had incantations and spells to invoke and
Acording to the Kaballah, King Solomon was able to control the
jinn, and, by using a Magic Ring, he forced them to build his great
temple and palaces.
The Order of the Knights Templar, the source of so much mystery,
was founded in Jerusalem in 1118, its first knights being quartered
in a wing of a palace said to be built on the foundations of the
Temple of Solomon.
builder of the Temple of Solomon was Hiram Abiff, who was murdered
by his colleagues. The circumstances surrounding his death are
venerated in the rituals of the Freemasons, and at various times
the masons were associated with the Knights Templar, Illuminati,
Rosicrucians and other secret societies.
masons were once a guild of itinerant mediaeval builders
using secret signs and passwords to establish their mastery of
their craft which, as seen in the great Gothic Cathedrals, must
certainly have seemed occult to the uninitiated.
association of masonry with the Hermetic Mysteries seems first to
surface in 1638 in a poem by Henry Adamson of Perth :
For we the brethren of the Rosie Crosse;
We have the Mason word, and second sight,
Things for to come we can tell aright ...
end of the 17th century 'Operative Masonry' ... the functional
practice of the Craft ... was changing into 'Speculative
Masonry..., as evolved in Scotland (Scotch Rite). Such lodges were
possibly a repository of Templar lore: they did require
loyalty to the Stuarts; thus to the Jacobite cause.
formation in 1717 of the English Grand Lodge arose as a
Whig/Hanoverianattempt to break this Jacobite monopoly: by 1723 the
original four English lodges had grown to 52; in 1733 in
Massachusetts the first American lodge was formed; and in 1776
masons played a prominent role in establishing the Constitution of
the United States.
symbols like the Eye in the Triangle remain conspicuous on the
Dollar bill to the present day. Freemasonry was banned in all
Communist and remains so in most Catholic countries.
Freemasonry insists on the Brotherhood of Man and requires the
purification and enlightenment of its members via the 'seven steps
of Solomon's Temple' which are: discretion, obedience, morality,
love of mankind, courage, generosity, and love of
Freemasonry is divided into three 'Craft' degrees ... Entered
Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason ... these are under the
jurisdiction of the United Grand Lodge of Englandwhose present
Grand Master is the Duke of Kent.
Comparisons between the Authorised King James version of the
Bible and The Jerusalem Bible finds that the St. James version
leaves out various Books ... namely: Maccabees, Tobit, Judith,
Baruch, and The Book of Wisdom; and contains a Book which The
Jerusalem Bible does not include ... that of
book The Lost Bible ... Forgotten Scriptures Revealed Professor JR
Porter explains that in the centuries around the beginning of the
Common Era, the Jewish people drew faith and inspiration from
hundreds of sacred writings, not just those that make up the Hebrew
Bible. But in spite of their exclusion from the Jewish canon, they
continued to inspire and influence the great Jewish teachers and
were a rich source of popular legends and
often powerful and beautiful works were also important to the
founders of the Church ... including the writers of the New
Testament. Early Christianity itself produced a wealth of sacred
writings which, although excluded from the Christian canon, were
popular among believers and important in spreading the
Forgotten Scriptures include miracles of the boy Jesus and the
adventures of the Apostles among magicians, and
The idea of a personified principle of evil ruling the material
world and called Satan, Lucifer, Mephistopheles, or the Devil, is
deeply rooted in Christianity.
called Satan 'the prince of this world'; St. Paul named him
'the god of this world' ... admissions later used by Gnostics to
support their Dualist claim that Evil not only rules the world but
created it, God being busy elsewhere.
belief and even orthodox Catholic belief in Satan as the rebellious
fallen angel, inspiring all worldly ill, has always been
contradicted by Isaiah xiv 7:
the light, and create darkness:
peace, and create evil: I the Lord do all these
The Devil is a mental construct developed by early Church fathers
as a scapegoat for human nature and as an image terrible enough to
make pagans abandon their (devilish) gods and embrace Christ. The
origins of the names Satan and Lucifer show this clearly.
Satan in Hebrew means 'adversary', and originally implied an
accuser of men (as in the book of Job).
satan, God's prosecution lawyer, was only gradually magnified, in
later Jewish and early Christian writings, into Satan, God's
Adversary, the source of all evil.
(in Hebrew Helel ben-Shahar, 'day-star, son of the dawn', the
beautiful morning star who walked in Eden) is Latin for the planet
Venus, meaning 'light bearer'.
passage in Isaiah: 'How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son
of the morning', predicts the doom for the King of Babylon,
oppressor of the Jews, employing as a metaphor the daily eclipse of
this brightest planet by the greater light of the rising
passage was later used, as was the Enochian myth of the fall of the
Watchers, to demonise Lucifer as the proud angel fallen to earth,
there in darkness to oppose God (the sun) in eternal contest for
Thus grew the myth that Satan and his angels were expelled from
heaven for refusing to worship Adam. This was yoked to the tale
that the Serpent tempted Eve to persuade Adam to eat the Appleand
so gain knowledge of good and evil
not said in Genesis that the Serpent is the Devil: this came
later, as did St. Paul's dogma that Adam's original sin plunged all
later generations into the power of the Devil, to be redeemed only
convenient, as was the now-logical association of the serpent, or
dragon (originally a symbol of natural energy fertilising Eve, the
Mother Goddess Earth, or Gaia) with the by-now thoroughly blackened
'satanic' or 'luciferian' principle.
The Book of Revelationcompletes the link: 'And the great dragon was
cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which
deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his
angels were cast out with him'. Meanwhile in the East, the dragon
retained its beneficient image of life-fertilising energy.
With this in place the young Church could now tame the wild,
impulsive gods of the old nature religions ... meaning the wild,
impulsive aspects of human nature. Thus the Great God Pan, horned
and cloven-hooved, became the conventional Christian Devil, alias
'Old Nick' ... Nik being a title of the pagan god Woden.
Everywhere the Christian missionaries went, local nature gods were
demonised or absorbed. Failed missions were blamed on the Devil ie
that part of human nature resisting repression. So fear of the
Devil proved effective in enforcing submission to the God of Love,
with fear of the stake as a useful back-up.
Fear stalked Europe during the Witch Hunts of the 15th to the 18th
centuries. In the eyes of the Church, witches were heretics to be
rooted out, tried and executed. Many thousands of people were put
The early Church had a generally lenient attitude towards
witchcraft, believing that its followers could be persuaded away
from their 'delusions'. Attitudes began to change from the 12th
century and even the scholastic philosophers speculated on the
possible powers of magic used for evil purposes. Witches, who were
believed to have been given malevolent powers by Satan and to be
his agents on earth, became figures of hatred.
In 1484 two Dominican friars persuaded Pope Innocent 3 to authorise
the suppression of witchcraft. Their book The Witches Hammer,
became the handbook of demonology in Europe. It taught that the
guilty were condemned but that their souls could be saved by
confessions, usually obtained by torture.
Those who confessed quickly might be granted an 'easier' death such
as hanging, rather than being burned alive.
The 'Holy War' against witchcraft, begun before the Reformation,
was carried on by both Catholics and Protestants. Old women were
often accused, but anyone ... priests, nuns, magistrates ... could
attract suspicion. Sickness, crop failure, and other misfortunes
were blamed on individuals accused of witchcraft. Allegations were
sometimes made to gain revenge or the land or property of those
Witch hunts were not as widespread in England as in continental
Europe, where witches were fanatically pursued. In Elizabeth I's
reign witchcraft was punishable by death, but the accused were
usually pilloried for the first offence and were put to death only
if convicted of persisting in malevolent magic. They were not burnt
to the stake but hanged, and confessions were not extracted from
them by torture. Among the most notorious American witchcraft
trials were those in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692, in which
village girls accused a group of respectable citizens of
Star Of Bethlehem
The Three Wise Men who came to Bethlehem bearing the gifts of Gold,
Frankincense and Myrrh as offerings to the new born infant Jesus,
and seen on much of the Christian Christmas cards were the
The first record of the Magi can be dated to Persia at around
591BC, but they were at their greatest power and prestige when
Cyrus established the Persian Empire. Most probably descendants of
the Medians, the Magi set themselves apart from the Persians and
further split their own sect into castes. Most of the priests
followed the teachings of Zoroaster.
The Magi were philosopher-priests. The term (particularly in its
singular form: magus) came to be applied to 'wise men' in general,
especially to those involved in hermetic, or magical practices. The
terms 'magic', 'magician', and 'imagination' also derive from this
The Magi were famous for healing and their practice of various
forms of divination, which they performed in their temples.
Although forbidding idolatry, the Magi believed in the divinity of
the Cosmos, and according to the Greek historian Herodotus
(c.480-c.425BC), they made supplications to all of the heavenly
bodies, including the Earth, Fire, Water, and Winds.
The Persian word magus (meaning 'priest' and 'fire worshipper') was
adapted into Greek as magus (meaning a 'wise one', 'wizard' or
'juggler'). Demonstrations, feats or traits 'of a wizard' were said
to be magikos, and it was this Greek root that was Westernised into
magic and magical.
Many biblical scholars believe that the three 'wise men from the
East' who attended the newborn Jesus (Matthew 2.1) were probably
Their hypothesis is based on several factors 'Wise Men' could refer
to their being followers of Ahura-Mazda, the omniscient source of
obviously travelled some distance because Herod based his
slaughtering of 'all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in
all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under' (Matthew
2.16) on the time that the wise men had been seeing and trailing
having followed 'the star, which they saw in the east' (Matthew
2.9), the wise men were not only acutely aware of heavenly signs
but had travelled from the Zoroastrian stronghold of Persia.
Those who doubt the Zoroastrian connection suggest that it was the
star that was in the east and not the wise men. Also, the prophet
Jesus was worshiped by the wise men. But the Zoroastrian Magi never
proclaimed Jesus to be a deity or made him the major figure in
their faith or a replacement for their own religion's founder.
It has been suggested by religious scholars, however that the story
of the Magi (whether an actual event or not) may have been included
in the scriptures by the early Christian writers to suggest that
all pagan deities and religions are inferior and subservient to
Jesus and the new 'true faith'.
The Paranormal ... An
Illustrated Encyclopedia by Stuart Gordon ISBN 0-7472-0356-3
Pub Headline Book Publishing PLC
Psychology ... The Science of Mind and Behaviour (3rd Edition) by
Richard Gross ISBN 0-340-64762-0 Pub Hodder & Stoughton
A Witches' Bible ... The Complete Witches' Handbook by Janet and
Stewart Farrar ISBN 0-919345-92-1 Pub Phoenix Publishing Inc.
Wizards and Sorcerery ... From Abracadabra to Zoroaster by Tim
Ogden -5 Pub Checkmark Books ISBN 0-8160-3152
Family Encylcopedia of World History Pub The Reader's Digest
The Jerusalem Bible Edited by Alexander Jones Pub Dartman, Longman
The Holy Bible Authorised King James Version Pub Collins'
The Lost Bible ... Forgotten Scriptures Revealed by Professor JR
Porter ISBN 1-903296-53-6 Pub Duncan Baird
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