transvaal

 



Transvaal


We used to go to various places in South Africa on holidays.

We went a few times to Johannesburg and Pretoria in the Transvaal. And to nearby Vereeniging to visit some friends from Zambia who had moved down there. We also had friends from Zambia who lived in Umdloti, Natal ... Port Sheptone, Natal ... Estcourt, Natal ... and East London, Cape Province.

My dad also joined the Caravan Club of South Africa and we often went to places on caravan rallies.

My dad was very interested in the history of Africa and stories of exploration fascinated him. He was keen to see where famous battles had taken place. He was enthralled by the tales about the tribespeople. So we often went to visit these places.

To get to Johannesburg, a distance of about 400 miles, we used to travel along the route: Manzini - Mbabane - Oshoek (the border) - Lochiel - Lake Chrissie - Ermelo - Bethal - Kinross - Springs - Brakpan- Boksburg - Germiston - Johannesburg.

And to get to Pretoria we used to travel along the route: Manzini - Mbabane - Oshoek -Lochiel - Carolina - Middleburg - Witbank - Pretoria.

Sometimes my dad used to vary the route by going along the smaller roads which in those days were usually gravel.

Most of the gravel roads were in good condition, but bumpy in places. When it rained they became potholey, but a skilled driver could still achieve fairly high speeds, provided you gripped the steering wheel firmly and were vigilant for the odd one or two deeper holes.

Speeds of 60/70 mph were achievable on these gravel roads. Rear wheel drive vehicles were better at handling the gravel roads than a front wheel drive. Front wheel drive vehicles tended to catch in the potholes and spin the steering wheel out of your hands.

Muddy roads were always a problem for any vehicle, but more so for a rear wheel drive as the rear wheels tended to slide with less traction. We often had to weight the back of a vehicle so that the wheels gripped better.
 
All terrain and four wheel drive vehicles were not common (apart from the Jeep) as they are today, and when buying a car, you usually chose a vehicle that was sturdy and a good road handler rather than a prestige car. Datsun (Nissan), VW, Toyota, and Ford were usually good all rounders. But in the cities, where tar roads were more abundant, you used to see makes like Mercedes Benz, BMW, and Alpha Romeo.

The road to Johannesburg along the route above was mainly tar. There was a short stretch of about 30-50 miles that was gravel just after Lake Chrissie that stretched up to the Oshoek border.


Johannesburg is in heart of the gold mining industry, the Witwatersrand, which means "ridge of white waters". It is often confused as being the capital of South Africa, but it is Pretoria that is the capital with its administrative buildings. Johannesburg is usually shortened to Jo'burg or Joeies/Josie by South Africans.


Johannesburg


We stayed at Bezuidenhout Park which used to be a farm owned by FJ Bezuidenhout who, in the times of the gold rush, made his fortune by buying and selling land. In the 1920s the city council bought the 40 hectare farm and turned it into a historical monument and recreational area with a caravan park, childrens playground, swimming pool, restaurant, and picnic spots.

The area near Bezuidenhout Park is better known ... Soweto.

Johannesburg is like any other city, modern skyscrapers, museums, art galleries. As it is situated on open veld, the streets are laid out in a grid pattern and are relatively straight, and unlike streets in Europe, are wide. The city is dominated by man-made mountains of tailings and rocks from the now disused mines.



Johannesburg at Night ... JG Strijdom Tower

Rissik Street Fountain ... A memorial to Sir Ernest Oppenheimer


It was in Johnnesburg that my father first came across "hazard warning lights" on vehicles, the double flashing indicator lights.

We were in peak traffic. The road was two lanes wide on both sides, and we were in the "slow" lane looking for a place to park. It was hot! My dad was not happy - this was the fourth time we had ridden round the block looking for an empty space!

The vehicle in front stopped, out jumped a guy from the passenger side, who walked to the back of the vehicle, and on came the "hazard lights". My dad waited patiently for the guy to "turn" as he could see the indicator flashing. But then he noticed that there were TWO lights flashing.

My dad became impatient and started ranting on about that the guy didn't know which way he was turning! - and silly idiots! - and he needs to get his lights fixed! - blah blah! Except that the guy overheard him and calmly said:

"Sir you are behind the times, these are hazard warning lights. We have put them on to signal to you and other drivers that we are double parked because we are offloading goods. We will be no more than 10 minutes. Its an acceptable practice in the city."


It was the first time I had seen my dad utterly gob-smacked!
The south-eastern Transvaal is dominated by the Vaal River which rises in the  highveld plains bordering Swaziland. Vaal means "tawny" because of its muddy colour and to the Bushmen it was known as Gij-Gariep which also means tawny. The Sotho people called it iliGwa meaning "eratic" because of the unpredictable variations in its flow.

In early times, many little dams were built to irrigate farms. The Loch Vaal Reservoir was created by a dam built in 1923, and the Vaal Dam was built further upstream in 1936. Holiday resorts have grown up on the banks of the Vaal.

Vereeniging is one of the towns that sprang up along the Vaal River. It was here that the Boer and British met in May 1902 to end the Anglo-Boer War. Vereeniging is known for its coal deposits and is the centre for the electricity power stations.



In the Transvaal you see a lot of Ndebele homesteads.


The Ndebele are known for their elaborately painted houses and intricate beadwork. The women wear metal rings around their ankles and necks which are never removed.

The Ndebele are decendants of the Nguni tribe who migrated down the south-east coast of Africa, and are related to the Swazi people. They diverted to the Transvaal under the leadership of Musi and settled in the area of modern day Pretoria about 370 years ago along the banks of the Tswane River. Tswane was one of their chiefs and means "little ape" or "Apies".

In about 1825 a party of renegade of the Ndwandwe tribe lead by Mzilikazi made their stronghold in the valley. The Ndwandwe had been defeated by the Zulu in the south under Shaka who was welding the independent clans and tribes into a nation. Mzilikazi was peaceful with Shaka for a while but embezzled loot for himself and was forced to flee from the wrath of the Zulu.

The Sotho people of the highveld named them maTebele meaning "refugees" or "the runaways". The followers of Mzilikazi called themselves amaNdebele. (The original Sotho term was corrupted to Matabele by the Europeans.)


As Mzilikazi's prosperity grew, the Zulu learned of his whereabouts and sent regiments to defeat him. Mzilikazi was forced to flee to the western Transvaal. Chaos reigned in the eastern Transvaal until 1937 when the Voortrekkers chased Mzilikazi north into Zimbabwe (which thereafter became known as Matabeleland).


Pretoria Union Buildings

And statue of General Louise Botha


Pretoria, the city, was established as the administrative capital in 1855 and was named after Andries Pretorius one of the Voortrekkers. Pretoria was the scene of fighting during the Boer Civil War of 1863-1869.


It was the home of the writer Sir Henry Rider Haggard during the British annexation between 1877 and 1881. (Sir Henry Rider Haggard is known for his novels "King Solomons Mines" and "She".)

At first Pretoria was known as the City of Roses. In 1888JA Celliers imported two Jacaranda Mimosifolia trees from Rio de Janeiro and planted them in his garden. In 1898 James Clark obtained a contract to grow trees for the government. He ordered seed from Australia which also included a packet of seeds of the same species of Jacaranda that Celliers had imported.



About 55,000 of these trees line the streets of the city and during October and November Pretoria is awash with the mauve blossoms. Then in 1962 H Bruinslich, the director of parks, saw the white species of Jacaranda in South America and introduced it to Pretoria.

It was in Pretoria that we were first introduced to building technology ... we had to visit some official building ... I can't remember what for but probably something to do with passports or visas ...

The building was impressive, recently built, with huge smoked glass windows, glass doors, and a nice black "welcoming mat". As we stepped on the mat, my mum went to push open the doors but hey presto! as if by magic the doors opened as she reached out! ...

Mum jumped back in fright and horror and wondered what on earth she had done! Me and my ?! ... we fell about laughing hysterically because both of us had seen the "electric eye" that operated the doors!

Melrose House, home of George Heys who ran one of the principal stage-coach and transport lines in the Transvaal, is a fine piece of Victorian Dutch architecture. It was here that the Treaty of Vereeniging was signed in May 1902 ending the Anglo-Boer War.


The Voortrekker Monument dominates the Pretoria skyline, towering at 40 metres high above a base of 40m x 40m.

It was designed by Gerard Moerdijk whose design was accepted by the Sentrale Volks Monumente Kommittee (Central Peoples Monument Committee) to symbolise the fortitude, courage and indomitable spirit of the Voortrekkers during theGreat Trek


Moerdijk looked away from the traditional Dutch-stylearchitecture and turned to the ruins of northern Transvaal and Zimbabwe as his inspiration. He visited the ruins of Great Zimbabwe and measured the stones and studied the decorations and design.

It was opened in 1949 and was built from granite quarried and cut to size from a site in the northern Transvaal where prehistoric peoples had also obtained building materials.

Moerdijk felt that the Bible was the foundation of the Voortrekkers fortitude and fashioned the base of the Monument into a huge altar.

At each corner are busts of the Great Trek leaders, Piet Retief, Andries Pretorius, and Hendrik Potgieter; and a nameless leader stands at the fourth. A statue of a Voortrekker woman and her children stands at the entrance. Above this are the heads of wildebeest, symbolising the dangers that the Voortrekkers had to face. The head of a buffalo is above the main entrance as the buffalo was regarded as the most dangerous and determined of all animals.

The monument is surrounded by a wall depicting 64 ox-wagons - this symbolises the laager of wagons the Voortrekkers formed when encountering an attack.


Inside the monument are friezes showing events of the Great Trek, and in the hall lies a cenotaph of polished granite on which are the words "Ons vir jou, Suid-Afrika" which means "We for thee, South Africa". A shaft of light shines through a hole in the domed roof sweeping across the inscription on the anniversary of the Battle of Blood River when a force of 470 Boers routed an army of about 12,000 Zulus.

Sarel Celliers was the principal spiritual leader of the Voortrekkers who were deeply religious Calvanists.

When they prayed before the attack at Blood River, Celliers made the promise to God that if he granted them victory, they would hold the day sacred for all time.

This day was hence known as The Day of the Covenant.

As they then viewed that their victory was a sign from God that they were superior in power to the black tribes people, it formed the basis for other acts of superiority.

The apartheid system however, was introduced in 1910 when laws were officially passed limiting black workers to menial labour. Further laws were then passed forbidding interracial marriages, setting up black reservation areas, and banning black people from using white public services.

The black people held a series of protests against these laws and their segregation, and political organisations, such as the African National Congress (ANC) and later, the Pan African Congress (PAC), were set up.

The National Party who were advocates of apartheid was voted in in 1948, and a small group of paramilitary boers called the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) led by Eugene Terre Blanche made news when they sported their flag bearing a swastika and advocating "pure race" slogans. The pre-1994 slogan of the ANC was "one settler one bullet".

Nowadays South Africa has a more "open" political system and different parties

At school we learnt about the Great Trek from a teacher, Mr. Ronnie Chambers, who used to act out scenes, using desks as wagons and rulers as spears or guns.

I remember him often crouching behind a desk pretending he was a Voortrekker under attack from a Zulu warrior, or looming over a student crying "Bayette!" with his ruler poised ready to lance the poor guy through the heart.

For me, Mr. Chambers was the best history teacher you could ever have - he brought it to life!

My father also loved history and at the places where we went my mum and me got a history lesson of who did what where.

In Zimbabwe we had visited places where Rhodes and Livingstone went, and where Mzilikaze and his son Lobengula had their capitals, and sites where history took place, or ruins of great cities of tribes-people.

In South Africa we visited places where there had been battles - the Anglo-Boer War, the Battle of Blood River; or where the Voortrekkers went.

I don't remember all that my father told us of these great people as I was a child at the time and had other things on my mind, like children do. So now I pick out places that are familiar to me and quote from books the little bit of history that they offer.

 



The Edge of the Drakensberg

Sweeping down the north-eastern Transvaal is the beginning of the Drakensberg Mountains.

Here the highveld is 1,000 metres above the lowveld and the escarpment runs south to north for 300kms before dwindling to the level of the savannah.

All along this length are spectacular gorges, isolated buttresses, and unusual geological features.

The Blyde River is a tributary of the Olifants River and has a spectacular gorge.

When the Voortrekker leader Hendrik Potgieter led an exploratory party to Delagoa Bay (Lourenco Marques) in 1840 the womenfolk were left behind on the Drakensberg near Graskop. As the men did not return for some time the women thought they must have perished and named the stream where they were camped Truer meaning "sorrow" and left. However they met up with Potgieter and his men at a ford in the river and were reunited.

They named the river Blyde which means "joy".


The Blyde River plunges into a gigantic gorge 800m below the summit of the escarpment.

Dominating the gorge are the triplet peaks known as the Three Rondavels and the 1,944m flat-topped summit of Mariepskop.

Mariepskop was once an area of great strife. Bones from the Middle Stone Age are often found here as well as the skeletons of tribal wars.

In the days when the Swazi people raided the lowveld tribes, the Pedi and Pulana people used the flat-topped mountain as a natural fortress. In one battle, known as Moholoholo meaning "the great, great one", the Swazis were defeated by a combined force of Pedi and Pulana, lead by Mohala, Maripi Mashile, and Tshilwane. The peak is named in honour of Maripi.


Mac Mac Falls            Berlin Falls  

 
Pilgrims Rest was named when two prospectors found gold in the area and the creek yielded the richest alluvial deposits at its height in the 1870s.


The river known as the Letaba was called by the tribespeople Lehlaba meaning "sandy river".

In this area is one of the largest private game reserves. The Sabie and the Sand Rivers flow through the reserve, and the reserve is thus known as the Sabie-Sand Game Reserve.

Sabie was named uluSaba by the Shangaan tribe meaning "fearful river" and the town originated in 1895 when again gold was found in the area. The Sandstone Mine closed in the 1950s. After the Anglo-Boer War plantations of pine and gum trees were begun and in the Sabie district today there are numerous sawmills.

Nelspruit sprung up around the Eastern Line Railway in 1892. It was originally a farm owned by the Nel family and means "Nels stream". Traders came to the station which was built on the farm and the area became renowned for its citrus production and other fruits.

Komatipoort became the principal gateway between South Africa and Mozambique and was the depot for the Eastern Line.


One of the major attractions of the Crocodile River Valley are the Sudwala Caves.

These Caves are in the mountains, known asMakelekele which means "crag on crag", which overlook the tributary of the Crocodile River, the Houtbosloop.

The Swazi people used the caves as a retreat during the years of tribal upheaval in the 19th century when they were frequently attacked by Zulu raiders.

The chief, Somcuba, a renegade who had once been a regent during the reign of Mswati, the Swazi king, established a village close to the caves.

During his regency Somcuba had accumulated large herds of cattle. The Swazis raided Somcuba several times for the return of the cattle but he always managed to retreat into the caves, until he was caught in a surprise attack and was killed.

Only a portion of his followers managed to escape to the caves, led by an officer named Sudwala. The caves were named after him by the Europeans.

Barberton was known by early prospectors as the Valley of Death as mosquitos by their thousands dominated the area.

In 1884 Graham Barber and his cousins Fred and Harry found a rich reef of gold, and diggers arrived en mass.

From the beginning it was a centre for wild speculation, gambling and fraudulent company promotion and dozens of canteens, liquor shops, and music halls competed with the mines to make the greatest profits in town.

Everything changed when more gold was found at Witwatersrand and the prospectors left.

In the Barberton Park there is a statue of South Africa's famous dog, Jock of the Bushveld and the acacia tree outside the town is where Jock and his master, Sir Percy FitzPatrick, often camped.


Jock of the Bushveld is a true story of the life of Sir Percy Fitz Patrick.

The book covers the years when he was a transport rider ending in 1889 when tsetse fly infected all his oxen and he was ruined.

Jock was given to a friend of his when Sir Percy took a job with the mining company in Barberton. Jock was then given to a trader named Tom Barnett who had a store in Mozambique near Maputo.

Jock was killed one night when he attacked another dog which was raiding chickens. Although Jock killed the stray dog, his master mistook him in the dark night as the other dog and accidentally shot him.

Sir Percy rapidly rose in the mining world and eventually became a senior partner. He entered into politics and after the Anglo-Boer war became one of the founders of the Union of South Africa. He was knighted in 1902. He wrote several books, as well as Jock of the Bushveld.


Pietersburg is the principle town of the northern Transvaal and is a popular stopping place for tourists heading for Magoebaskloof and the Kruger National Park.

The road down the escarpment between Pietersburg and Tzaneen is spectacular in scenery. It passes through a mountain range called Magoebaskloof which takes its name from Makgoba, the chief of the small Tlou tribe who lived at its foot.

In 1894 Mokgoba and the Tlou refused to pay taxes to the Transvaal government who sent in a small force to discipline Makgoba but he escaped into the deep forest with his followers and defied all efforts to get him out.

The government obtained help from the Swazi, who were expert trackers. The Swazi managed to capture two Tlou women who they tortured until they told where to find Makgoba.

The Swazi found his stronghold and challenged him to a personal combat with their commander.

The two fought with spears and clubs until Makgoba fell to his knees defeated, whereupon the Swazi cut of his head and carried it back to the Transvaal government to claim bounty.

The town

Tzaneen was named after the resident tribe, the Tzaneng and is a centre for agriculture.

 



Kruger National Park


Jacqueline Töben Groningen Springbok


In 1898 Paul Kruger signed a proclamation establishing a sanctuary for wild life between the Sabie and Crocodile Rivers. And thus Sabie Game Reserve, as it was known, became the first wildlife sanctuary in Africa.

In 1902 majorJames Stevenson-Hamilton became the chief game warden. He sternly enforced the poaching laws which earned him the nickname siKhuhuza meaning "he who scrapes clean" by his wardens, and the name Skukuza was given to his headquarters.


Edward Speras Kudu


In the Park are many piles of stones marking graves of Voortrekkers, prospectors, and traders who, in the 1870s to 1890s had died along the routes they took to the coast.

The area was known for  tsetse flywhich spread a disease called nagana. Many people and animals died from the disease.


In 1896 the livestock disease rinderpest swept down from central Africa killing great numbers of cloven-hooved animals, which were susceptible to it. These animals, especially the buffalo, were also the host to the tsetse fly, and when they died, the tsetse fly died along with them.


Duiker & Dikdik


With the fly gone, the wild animals were ruthlessly hunted for ivory, skins, horns, and meat. Professional hunters were joined by crowds of construction workers from the Eastern and Selati Lines, and the government were forced to intervene so that the wildlife was not wiped out.

In 1903 a second Park was created in the north between the Letaba and Luvuvhu Rivers, called Shingwidze Game Reserve, with the area inbetween being owned by private ranchers.

Later this area was placed under the control of Stevenson-Hamilton and thus Kruger National Park was created.


Eland


However, the Park did not open to the public until 1927 as it was the subject of debate as to whether it was a "waste" of valuable farming land in the years between 1903 and 1926.

Not everyone in those days were in favour of conservation. There was also no facilities in the Park, and these had to be built, along with roads.

In 1929 a large part of American tourists visited the Park in the middle of the rainy season. Their vehicles became stuck in the mud and they were forced to spend the night perched in thorn trees to avoid the lions. Some contracted malariaafter being exposed to the mosquitos.

The naturalist and artist, Charles Astley Maberly, whose farm was near the Tzaneen-Modjadji forest drive and the Duivelskloof road, used to ride around the Park on a bicycle, jumping off without the least fear of danger to sketch suitable subjects. Charles Maberly was murdered in 1972.

Another person who travelled the Park on a bicycle was an African ranger. When stopped by tourists warning him of prides of lions ahead, he simply shrugged and said:


"Eat you, but not me. Me government!"




Cape Hunting Dog


Unfortunately, we never went to Kruger National Park, although we had planned to.

 

Bilharzia

One of the things we had to watch out for in Africa was bathing in the rivers and streams.

In certain areas these contained a parasitic disease called bilharzia. It is not really a disease but more of a worm whose host is the water-snail.

To complete its life-cycle the worm needs a human host. These worms are microscopic and enter through the pores in the skin or through an abrasion on the skin. Bilharzia can survive undetected in its human host for many years, sometimes up to 10 years.

You can catch bilharzia even if you merely put your big toe in these infected waters.


Elands River Falls is 228m high and drops over the escarpment between the Transvaal highveld and the lowveld. The towns of Waterval-Boven ("above the waterfall") and Waterval-Onder take their names from this drop.


There is an old railway tunnel between the two towns and on the station of Waterval-Onder ("below the waterfall") is a monument to the men who built the line.

Inside the tunnel it is pitch-black - you literally cannot see your hand in front of your face! My dad tried to scare me in the tunnel by sneaking up on me but his plot failed because I saw the glow of his cigarette and knew where he was!

The town of Piet Retief was named after the Voortrekker leader who was murdered by the Zulus in 1838 and is the centre for timber and paper-making.

Ermelo, where my friend Joy Golesworthy went to school, was founded in 1871 by theReverend Frans Lion Cachet and was named after the town by the same name in Holland.

At Camden near Ermelo is an electricity generating plant and the water cooling towers can be seen from miles away dominating the flat open plains.

In the northern Transvaal the main towns are Messina, Louis Trichardt, Potgietersrus, Pietersburg and Nylstroom. We travelled through these towns on the way down from Zambia.

Common in this area is the Baobab Tree, Adansonia digitata.


Messina is 16kms from the Rhodesian (Zimbabwe) border and is a copper-mining centre. It was known by the Bantu, who mined the area in medieval times, as Musina which means "the spoiler".

The Bantu were looking for iron, but having found copper instead, learnt to fashion it and use it for cooking materials and ingots which became standard items of barter with other tribes and Arab safari traders.

The copper was re-discovered by John Pasco Grenfell shortly before the Anglo-Boer war when Grenfell heard about old Bantu mines from the hermit, Wild Lotrie.

Louis Trichardt was named after the Voortrekker who camped here in 1836 before leaving on his fateful expedition to Lourenco Marques when half of the party, including Trichardt, succumbed to malaria.

Trichardt's trek was significant because of the hazards and trials they had to overcome in reaching Lourenco Marques.

Instead of taking the wagon route, they went south and crossed some of the wildest country in the Transvaal.

The mountain terrain was formidable, and they encountered elephants, lions, crocodiles and mosquitos.

Despite warnings from the Pedi people they continued on their journey and had to forge their way down the 1,000m escarpment to the plains below.

It took them 2 months and 10 days, at first making their own passable track and then labouring and manoeuvering the 9 wagons down the slopes.

At times they had to remove the rear wheels of the wagons and tie tree-trunks below the axle to protect the rivets and provide friction on the slopes.

Potgietersrus was named after the Voortrekker, Piet Potgieter, who was killed in the siege of the Makapansgat Caves in 1854.

It was to these caves that the Tlou tribe fled after massacreing of 28 Voortrekkers at Moorddrift, Pruizen and Mapela.

Piet Potgieter led the siege with a government force. The siege lasted 30 days with the soldiers shouting demands for surrender from the Tlou and getting shots back in reply.

One of these shots killed Potgieter. Piet Potgieter was the son of the Voortrekker, Andries Potgieter.

When finally the shots petered out the government forces decided to storm the caves. There they found over 1,500 Tlou tribespeople who had died from thirst and starvation.

In the Makapansgat Caves remains of the man-like ape Australopithecus Prometheus have been found as well as many animal fossils.

Nylstroom was named by the first Voortrekkers in the northern Transvaal and means "Nile's stream".

They believed the river which was flowing northwards, to be the source of the Nile and their theories were strengthed by the discovery of a pyramid shaped hill, known by the tribespeople as Modimollo which means "place of spirits" and is a burial ground of ancient chiefs.


Modjadji ... The Rain Queen


Duivelskloof meaning "ravine of the devil" was the home of a Karanga princess who had fled from Rhodesia with her followers.

She was a sorceress known for her rain-making spells. She called herself Modjadji and people came to believe that she was immortal - the "She who must be obeyed".

Sir Henry Rider Haggard based his novel "She" on her. His other novel "Alan Quartermain" was also based on a real person as was the Zulu warrior Umslopogaas.

Queen Mokope Modjadju V passed away on 28 June 2001. She was 64. She and her predecessors have ruled the Balobedu people for nearly 200 years. Her successor will be announced after the official 12-month cleansing period. The queen was praised as the 'Transformer of the Clouds' and revered for her ability to make rain.

    Modjadji's Kraal is the spectacular home to the Rain Queens, hereditary rulers of the Balobedo Baga Modjadji people, and also to one of South Africa's greatest natural wonders, the Modjadji cycads, or as they are known in horticultural terms, Encephalartos transvenosus. Some are reported to be over 800 years old.


Sir Henry Rider Haggard came to South Africa when he was 19. He became a civil servant and took part in the annexation of the Transvaal. He then became registrar of the high court and travelled widely in the Transvaal.


He heard many strange cases while he was registrar surrounding the pioneers, treasure-seekers, prospectors, and the tribespeople.

While he was in England in 1884 he wrote a book called Jess which was about the siege of Pretoria. In 1885 he wrote King Solomons Mines and in 1887 he wrote She, and Alan Quartermain. He was knighted in 1912.

 

 

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