One of the greatest impacts on all Africa's history, its peoples,
and its wildlife is the Gun -
Introduced initially as a hunting weapon to provide fresh game meat
for the passing sailors and little European settlements and to
protect them from marauding wild animals, it eventually became a
deadly end for many when it was used against the Bantu tribes -
first as protection against cattle raids, and then in the struggle
The Europeans also suffered in these wars - fighting each
The ivory trade and pelt trade opened up the way for the gun to be
used as an effective way to bring down large-sized game, and man
got the 'taste for blood' as he began to hunt not simply for food,
but for monetary gain and pure sporting pleasure.
All young European boys from the age of about 7-10 were trained by
their fathers in the art of hunting, using knives, catapults, and
the gun. And although guns were produced that were scaled down so
that they could be used by a child, many boys learned first how to
use the big guns of their fathers. Even Bantu male children learned
the art of hunting - and skill with spears, knives, and their first
'kill', were honoured amongst their society, initiating them into
Whilst today gun-warfare in Africa has somewhat abated with
countries living in relative peace, the hunting and poaching
warfare has not lost impetus and guns are now more sophisticated,
high powered, accurate, and deadly.
The continued desire by man for trinkets made of ivory, and horn
for 'medicine', and high prices for these articles mean that many
of Africa's countries still battle another war - with the poachers
History in Africa
On 6th April 1652 Jan van Riebeeck landed at the Cape where he
established a settlement and eventually built a
On Monday, 5th August 1686, instructions were issued from the
Castle, detailing the rules and regulations of a shooting
competition to be held at Stellenbosch from the 1st to the 14th
the first reference to an organised sports event in South
The origin of the shoot comes from Middle Age Europe when parrots,
geese and probably other birds were used as targets for shooting
events at village fairs.
Later clay and wooden replicas were used instead of live birds and
it seems obvious that Governor Simon van der Stel had this
tradition in mind when he introduced the"papegaij"as the target to
This proclamation from the Castle would give the citizens an
opportunity to exercise their firearm skills and so encourage a
state of military readiness in the event of any requirement in this
The rules of the match were numerous and fairly
fees were 2schillings (about 10 current South African cents) for
locals from Stellenbosch and 1Rixdaalder (40c) for others, whilst
there were several prizes for shooting off various parts of the
parrot's body. The person who eventually shot down the body itself
received a prize of 25 Rixdaalders (about 10 SA Rand) together with
entry fees and other emoluments, and was escorted home by all the
For the first 100 years of their existence firearms were not used
for hunting in Europe due to their unwieldiness, lack of accuracy
and the mess the projectile would have made of a carcass in the
unlikely event of a hit, and it wasn't until the 16th century when
the refinement of the matchlock and the new wheel-lock began to
make hunting with firearms a possibility.
As sporting with firearms became more successful, more rules were
laid upon them by the authorities.
deer, the chief sport of medieval kings, for example was
especially restricted and in some countries, deer shooting could
incur the most extreme penalties ranging from confiscation of all
property and in some cases, death.
By the middle of the 19th century, hunting firearms had essentially
divided into two major classes - the sporting rifle with its single
and usually solid projectile for larger game at longer ranges and
the shotgun with its multiple charge for smaller
shotgun was now usually percussion ignition and double barrelled
and muzzle loaded, with the exception being the German Dreiling - a
three barrelled weapon with two shotgun barrels and a rifle barrel
The standard cartridge for the shotgun became the centre-fire 12
bore, which is the term given to the number of spherical balls of
diameter equal to the bore that go into a pound
Except for police duties, shotguns were seldom used with solid
shot, and instead a number of different cartridges were selected to
match the intended game - small birds demanded many small balls in
the load - larger game demanded a lesser number of heavier
Sporting rifles varied in size and calibre according to the
intended quarry, with rook and rabbit rifles at the lightest end of
the spectrum, often with a cartridge as small as .22
shooting required a larger cartridge and a .300 was adequate. But
for really big game, such as the American buffalo, guns of about
half an inch calibre and a heavy barrel was
Particular favourites of the
professional hunter were the Sharps, Ballard and Winchester single
The 'elephant' or big game weapons with an 8 bore flint lock had
existed as early as the beginning of the 19th century but the
combination of really good range, accuracy and stopping power did
not emerge for another 50 years.
A percussion gun made by Pether of Oxford, England in the early
1830s weighed 15lb and had a bore of 1.5 inches, and early 'big
game weapons' such as this relied on the sheer mass of the
projectile rather than high velocity.
As the gun was twice as heavy as the military musket, it was fitted
with a mounting for a swivel, visible as a square section in front
of the lockplate, and it was not unknown to mount really heavy
pieces on small carriages, screened at the front to hide the
By 1860 these really powerful guns were being likened to express
trains and the term 'express rifle' soon gained currency for any
powerful sporting arm.
In the 1890s smokeless powders and brass cartridges combined with
nitrocellulose propellants aided the emergence of really modern
bolt-action big-game rifles.
The best cartridge for delivering a smashing short-range blow
against elephants, rhino, hippo, tigers and lions was the .600
nitro express, but an alternative was to deliver a solid shot from
One way to do this was to rifle a part of the shotgun barrel
(preferably the part near the muzzle) with a choke or narrower
section - these weapons were known as 'paradox guns', and the idea
possible came from the British inventor Fosbery who subsequently
devised the Webley-Fosbery revolver.
Optical or telescopic sights had been devised as early as 1800 and
experiments in their application had taken place in many areas with
the most successful was that of the British in India during the
1830s to 1840s and some had been used during the American Civil
War, but it was late in the century before there was any widespread
During the Boer War in 1899-1902 many of the best 'sniping shots'
using telescopic sights were men who had served their
'apprenticeship' hunting in Canada, India, or the forests in
Germany and Europe.
Hunting for pure sport in South Africa began in earnest around the
time of the 1830s when Cornwallis Harris who had read the accounts
of the botanist William Burchell.
William Burchell had trekked into the interior making botanical
drawings and descriptions of wildlife and collecting plant
specimens in 1811-1815 and had made maps of the
the first European to report the existence of white rhino and the
zebra-like animals called the quagga.
had hunted eland and other antelope as a means of survival on his
4500 mile trip of the interior.
Cornwallis Harris went out to South
Africa in 1836 when he fell ill with Indian fever and upon his
arrival in the country he and William Richardson, a friend from the
Bombay Civil Service, followed the route Burchell had took taking
with them food supplies, bullet moulds, lead ingots and 18,000
up with Mzilikazi and traded goods with him for the rights to hunt
in Matabeleland (Rhodesia/Zimbabwe). The two men then proceeded on
horseback to fire upon giraffe, rhino, eland, waterbuck and other
game at will. In the Magaliesberg Mountains they met up with herds
of elephant which they killed with wanton bloodlust.
finally came to an end when Harris and Richardson reached
Graaff-Reinet on January 24th, 1837.
published accounts of his trip, including a folio of 31 coloured
of the 'professional hunter' had begun - and by 1883 the quagga was
David Livingstone estimated that over 30,000 were killed yearly in
central Africa from the 1840s to the 1870s to supply the ivory
The weapons used during the 19th century were cumbersome and not
particularly effective and it was not unusual for hunters to have
to shoot big game like rhino and elephant a dozen times before
felling it. Some took 27-50 shots.
This meant that the animals were wounded first. Some fled and had
to be tracked before they were eventually killed - some turned and
fought back - and many a hunter was gored by an elephant or rhino,
or mauled by a lion or leopard.
Amongst the Colonial Big Game Hunters were names like the American
President Theodore Roosevelt who 'justified' his slaughter as
'providing specimens for museum display' and the writer Ernest
Hemmingway whose hunting expeditions were merely competitions with
his friends to see who could shoot the most, the biggest, the
More than 2,000 years ago the Chinese were buying ivory from
Mediterranean world, the Greeks and the Romans, also had heard
of a place far to the north where this ivory was dug from the
The ivory came from the extinct Mammoths whose remains were
preserved in the frosty ground. Mammoths had died out from Europe
15,000 years ago and from North America 5,000 years ago when the
ice caps and glaciers retreated.
Arab traders entered the Siberian ivory business 1,000 years ago,
and the English started buying mammoth ivory in the
The center of the mammoth ivory trade was Yakutsk in Russia and
during much of the 1800s 25 tons of ivory was sold annually. Over
50,000 mammoths reached 19th century markets.
The first known mention of African elephants in literature did not
occur until 480BC when Hanno, a Carthaginian, who sought to
establish settlements on the west coast of Africa, reported that
the marshes surrounding the Tensift River near the Atlas Mountains
were teaming with them.
Egyptian pharaohs and the Arabs had established elephant hunting
and slave trading stations along coastal Ethiopia and Somalia with
the main markets at Aksum and Meroe by the 3rd century
Not only for trade in ivory but also to capture live elephants for
use in warfare - Hannibal's trek from Tunis in North Africa and
across the Alps to Rome (Italy) being the best example of the
elephants use in warfare.
Thereafter they were also used by the Romans for entertainment in
circuses and gladiatorial games.
When over-hunting wiped out most of the game animals of north
Africa, traders sought to procure ivory, ostrich feathers, and furs
from the sub-Saharan savannah and beyond. The desert proved a
difficult terrain for all but the hardiest of pack animals and
peoples, but the sea routes excelled with ports being opened up
down the east coast of Africa as far as the Tropic of
Until the 1800s when explorers and European hunters began
expeditions themselves into the interior of central Africa, ivory
hunters were African.
states, such as the Chokwe of Angola on the western side and the
Imbangala of Kasanje on the eastern side, formed armies of
professional hunters trading deep into the interior.
famous Arab/Swahili trader of the central African interior was
Hamed bin Muhammed, commonly known as Tippu Tip, who started his
hunting and raiding experience among the Kazembe.
Kazembe had been another strong trading and hunting kingdom in the
1850s until civil wars crumbled the empire.
early 1880s Tippu Tip's 'hunting army' was several thousand strong
and they hunted elephants (and slaves) deep into the Zaire
African tribes in Tsongaland/Maputoland near Delagoa Bay also
provided a lucrative trade in ivory to the
One of the most long-cherished beliefs in the realm of love lore,
and one that remains relatively unshaken in the East, centres on
the "magical qualities" of powdered Rhinoceros horn.
Because of the insatiable demand for it, the Indian Rhino was
hunted almost to extinction, and about 60-70 years ago the
authorities had to establish a government sanctuary to preserve the
But the superstition lingers on, and Rhino horn is still prized as
an aphrodisiac in India and the Far East.
And in an effort to combat the poaching of Rhino and preserve the
species in southern Africa, reserves and parks are now cutting off
the rhino's horn.
African Military History
The century or so between the first British landings in the Cape in
1795 and the end of the Anglo-Boer War in 1902 saw a many-staged
progression from the smooth-bored, flint-lock, ball-firing, black
powder, "Brown Bess" musket, to the rifled, bolt action, Lee
Metfords and Lee Enfields using metal cartridges, smokeless powder,
long bullets and multi-shot magazines.
In the hands of a trained soldier the Brown Bess required 22
different actions to load; could discharge three shots a minute
unless it misfired; was long and heavy; unreliable in damp
conditions, and accurate only up to 80 yards or so.
It could not be fired prone (lying down); it had no sights; and it
required soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder if it was to be
effective. It was easily outclassed in terms of range and accuracy
by the rifled guns of the time -- although these had the
disadvantage that they could take even longer to load and often
required considerable force in the ramming action.
As a hunting weapon, the flint lock was so slow and noisy that it
could alert the quarry, and that accelerated the invention of the
percussion cap. This was a big improvement, although it did have
the military disadvantage that the cap was small and fiddling to
As the century advanced the ball was replaced by the bullet, and
incorporated with the charge into a single paper cartridge. In 1852
a new weapon, the Enfield muzzle-loaded"rifled musket"replaced the
Brown Bess as standard issue.
The British Army was slow to adopt the breach-loadingmethods being
developed in Europe and America.
By various steps it eventually fell into line, and by the time of
theZulu War of 1879 the standard issue was the famed,
breach-loaded, single- shot Martini-Henry.
The paper cartridge containing a short, solid bullet had by now
been replaced by abrass-cased charge surmounted by a longer bullet
hollow in the base to take the rifling. Ranges now exceeded a mile,
and accuracy had increased to at least half that
The main problems with the Martini Henry were its weight, its
length, and its single-shot action.
By the time of the Anglo Boer War it had been replaced as standard
issue by the Lee Metford, a rifle that was shorter, had a smaller
bore, bolt action and a magazine holding ten rounds loaded
separately. This was later replaced by the lighter, shorter, Short
Lee Enfield, loaded with a five-round clip of .303-inch calibre
The Maxim Gunwas perfected by Sir Hiran Maxim in 1885 after
experimenting with an old 'Brown Bess' rifle. It was successfully
employed by General Stanley during an expedition in 1887. The
weapon was awarded the gold medal at theInventors' Exhibitionin
1886 and the producers were overwhelmed with orders from many
For much of history European armies were divided into three main
combat arms: numerousinfantry, who fought on foot; cavalry, who
fought primarily on horseback; and artillery, with an assortment of
cannon whose spectacular rise in effectiveness was to dominate most
battlefields from the early 20th Century.
These were backed by services responsible for things like
transport, supply, communications and medical support, although
these did not really become part of the army proper until the 19th
century was well under way.
Success in battle often focused on the combination of the combat
arms, with artillery preparing the way for attack by the infantry,
and cavalry seeking intelligence, preventing a force from being
surprised, charging on the battlefield and pursuing a beaten
At no time did the gun suddenly supplant bows and armour, but over
a period of three centuries firearms slowly gained their
ascendancy, and the efficiency of the first guns was strictly
limited as good powder was difficult to make and extremely
Accuracy and velocity were also low given the ill-fit of projectile
with barrel, and these guns were best used in siege situations,
where the target was likely to be large and to stay still, or for
shock effect against cavalry or inexperienced
Weapons were divided into those like longbow, musket, rifle and
field gun, which achieved their effect by fire, and others, like
pike,sword and bayonet, which accomplished physical
used in Europe and Turkey in the 15th century, originally was an
agricultural implement intended for pruning and
Often the two effects were merged: a line of infantry might charge
after firing, with the implied shock inherent in its bayonets
producing a psychological effect which caused its opponents to seek
an urgent appointment elsewhere.
easier to move troops and to deliver physical shock in columns,
formations which were deeper than they were broad, but to deliver
fire in line.
Armies moving into battle would deploy from column into line, a
process in which drill and discipline were
Until the end of the 19th century, combat was a centralised
process, with men fighting standing up, under the eye of their
leaders and often within touching distance of their
One of the consequences of the rise of the infantry rifle at the
end of the 19th century was a more formless battlefield, with
combatants more spread and often lying down.
tended to make formal discipline less useful than it had been in
the past, and to emphasise individual qualities like initiative and
The same can be said about the Zulu warriors.
they did not at first have firearms or cannons, their impi
regiments followed the same formations and battle tactics, and had
military discipline. They fought using the long-spear, and the
short stabbing-spear called the assegai or iklwa.
Bows and arrows were not used by the Zulu impi in warfare but the
San and Khoikhoi have used the bow and arrow in their hunting, with
the arrows tipped with a natural poison to stun the prey. Why the
Zulu impi did not use the bow and arrow in their warfare remains
somewhat of a mystery.
The Zulu 'horns' formation was more effective than the
traditional 'lines' formation as the enemy then had to fight on all
of the Gun
The British Army was born when battlefields were being transformed
by the impact of gunpowder, called black powder.
The musket, which was easy to produce in large numbers and could be
used effectively by a soldier with a few week's training, had
replaced the longbow, manufactured by skilled artisans and used by
men whose muscles had been strengthened by years of
The infantry of the English Civil War consisted of pikemen and
musketeers. The former carried the pike as their main weapon - a
contract of 1657 specified that this should be 16 feet long - and
wore a steel cap and body armour, though the use of armour declined
as the century wore on.
The latter used a muzzle-loading matchlock musket so called because
its charge was ignited by the 'match', a length of smouldering
cord. But even contemporaries found these weapons
1627 military manual Pallas Armata Sir Thomas Kellie
musketeer may fail of his shot by sundry accidents, as by the
rolling out of the bullet, a bad match, a match not right cocked,
by evil powder, or wet powder in his pan; and I have often seen a
rank of musketeers having presented and given fire that three or
four of ten have failed of their shot, and you must know that in
service there is no time to prime again or to right their match,
for they must fall away with the rest of their rank, and make place
for the next rank to give fire."
into modern English)
Sir Thomas Kellie, Pallas Armata
The order 'fire' dates from this period: the musketeer 'gave fire'
by pressing the trigger of his musket so that the smouldering match
descended into the powder in his weapon's priming
early 18th century the order 'Give fire!' was replaced by the
The Wheel Lock was the next major advance when it was introduced in
the early 16th century.
mechanism worked in a similar principle to the modern flint
lighter, showering the primer with sparks which would then ignite
the priming powder and the main charge.
The wheel lock was very unreliable as the spring would break or the
mechanism would jam, or the pyrites could shatter, and the original
problem of reloading time still remained.
The introduction of the cartridge in about 1700 provided a major
improvement in the reloading time as it then became unnecessary to
measure the quantity of powder.
Now all the musketeer had to do was to tear the tube and pour the
contents into the barrel, push the shot into the barrel, followed
by the paper, and ram it home.
Flintlock Musket : The Brown Bess
The proportion of musketeers to pikemen grew during the century,
but it was not until 1705 that the British Army abandoned the pike
It was cumbersome, and the invention of the socket bayonet, which
fitted round the muzzle of the musket so that the weapon could be
used with its bayonet fixed, meant that each musketeer was now, in
effect, his own pikeman, with a shock weapon attached to his
The musket was transformed by the improvement of its firing
mechanism, with a spark produced by flintstriking steel igniting
the priming powder which fired the main charge.
This meant that soldiers no longer needed to have a length of
smouldering cord to hand if they wished to fire their weapons, and
made muskets a little more reliable in windy or damp
In 1722 regiments were ordered that any new muskets should conform
with the standard pattern, and from then till the 1830s various
variants of what became known as Brown Bess were the standard
British infantry weapon.
To load and fire the flintlock musket the soldier had to carry out
a set sequence of movements.
First, he bit one end off a paper cartridge containing powder and
musket-ball. He dribbled a small amount of powder into the priming
pan, and clicked the steel (a metal plate which the flint would
strike) back to cover it. Then he drew the ramrod from beneath the
musket's barrel, inserted powder and ball into the muzzle,
following this with the paper cartridge as wadding: the whole was
firmly rammed home.
To fire, he drew back the cock, whose steel jaws held a flint, and
then pressed the trigger. As the cock flew downwards the flint
struck the steel, producing sparks. The steel moved forward,
exposing the powder-filledflash-pan to the sparks. There was a
brief pause while the powder in the pan ignited, and then the main
charge fired, sending the musket-ball on its way.
at least, for theory.
Again, in wet or windy weather the priming powder might not ignite,
and sometimes even if it did there would be'a flash in the
pan'which would not set off the main charge.
soldiers might forget to remove their ramrods and fire them
was not uncommon for a man whose musket failed to function to
believe, in the chaos of battle, that it has in fact fired, and to
set about reloading.
A subsequent ignition would be likely to blow the weapon to pieces,
but some weapons were loaded repeatedly and never actually
well-rammed charge gave the weapon a heavy kick: a man who wished
to reduce the kick, or who wanted to fire as quickly as possible,
might omit the ramming altogether, simply seating the ball onto the
powder by rapping the musket-butt sharply against the ground. The
practice not only reduced the force of the ball when it emerged
from the muzzle, but might even cause it to trickle out of its own
accord, especially if the firer was aiming downwards.
Shaka, the Zulu King often remarked that the muskets used by the
Boers, were ineffective as weapons because the effectiveness
of the guns was reduced by the time it took to reload, so enabling
his warriors to reach and overwhelm their opponents.
considered Zulu weaponry and fighting tactics superior to these
The term 'Brown Bess' was not used in writing till 1785, and it
remains uncertain if the phrase originated in the German Büsche
(gun) and whether 'brown' applied to the colour of the stock or
1740s, there were two main types in use, the Long Land Pattern with
a 46-inch barrel and the Short Land Pattern with a 42-inch
In 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars, contractors were
ordered to supply muskets with a 39-inch barrel, based on East
India Company muskets which had been ceded to the British
government, and this 'India Pattern'musket remained the principal
infantry weapon of the Napoleonic period.
After a series of experiments with a more reliable system of
ignition based on a cap containing fulminate of mercury, the
percussion musket came into service in the 1830s. A
Brown Bess still survived - some old muskets were taken to
theCrimea - her days were numbered.
Although the flintlock musket was certainly an improvement over the
matchlock, it was an inherently primitive weapon: slow-firing,
unreliable and very inaccurate.
Recognition of these facts encouraged commanders to emphasise the
importance of getting as close to the enemy's line as possible, and
striving to maintain discipline which would both maintain the
volume of fire and discourage men from running away.
Burning black powder gave off dense grey-white smoke with a
distinct bad-egg stink, and on a damp or still day the smoke hung
about, obscuring men's vision and further reducing the
effectiveness of their fire. A trained soldier might get off four
shots a minute, but this soon shrank to three or even two as the
weapon became clogged with the residue left by burnt
The Royalist Captain Richard Atkyns gives a good description of the
effects of the smoke generated by musketry. On 5 June 1643 he rode
up Lansdown Hill, just outside Bath, towards the infantry, which
was fiercely engaged.
I came to the top of the hill, I saw Sir Bevil Grinvill's stand of
pikes, which certainly preserved out army from a total rout, with
the loss of his most precious life: they stood as upon the eaves of
an house for steepness, but as unmovable as a rock; on which side
of this stand of pikes our horse were, I could not discover; for
the air was so darkened by the smoke of the powder, that for a
quarter of an hour together (I dare say) there was no light seen,
but what the fire of the volleys of shot gave."
Young, Richard Atkyns
Breech Loading Rifle : Fifteen rounds a minute
Towards the close of the 19th century a series of developments
transformed the weapon carried by the footsoldier, and with it the
whole character of battle. Within a generation the muzzle-loading
musket was replaced by the breech-loading rifle, and the effect on
the fighting man was immediate and deadly.
Infantry weapons became more accurate, and could be fired more
rapidly before, and reached out to longer ranges. Groups of
determined men making skilful use of the ground became more
important than the steady lines of yesteryear, and the need for
concealment saw the British Army replace its traditional red coat
by the less conspicuous khaki in the 1880s.
The pace of technical change increased. A veteran of Malplaquet
(1709) would have been able to use a musket on the field of
Waterloo (1815) without difficulty: but a veteran of Waterloo would
have regarded the rifle used at the battle of Mons (1915) with
of the Rifle : The Martin-Henry
The first phase of development still used the familiar black
powder. Brown Bess was superseded first by a percussion musket and
then, in 1851, by a percussion rifle, still muzzle-loading but with
a barrel containing spiral grooves which spun its .577 inch conical
bullet in flight, giving greater range and accuracy.
In 1867 existing muzzle-loading rifles were modified, by the
addition of a hinged breech-block, to a breech-loading system named
after its inventor Jacob Snider.
This was, however, only a temporary expedient, and in 1871 the
Martini-Henry rifle, which fired a .45 inch bullet in a brass case,
Rifles were now relatively fast-firing and accurate, but still
produced clouds of smoke, and were still not wholly reliable. In
early versions of the Martini-Henry, cartridges sometimes stuck in
the weapon after they had been fired, a significant disadvantage to
a man with a Zulu warrior bearing down upon him.
The battlefields of the Napoleonic Wars were smoky places, and even
early breech-loading weapons still used black powder. Private
George Mossop, who fought in the Zulu War of 1879, described
were armed with Martini-Henryrifles charged with black powder, and
each shot belched out a cloud of smoke; it became so dense that we
were almost choked by it - and simply fired blindly into it. There
was one continuous roar from cannon, rifles and the voices of men
on both sides shouting. The smoke blotted out all view. It made
every man feel that all he could do was to shoot immediately in
front of him - and not concern himself with what was taking place
Mossop, Running the Gauntlet
In the 1880s the advent of smokeless powder, which enabled a
smaller quantity of powder to impel a bullet with even greater
force, helped make ammunition even smaller. It also greatly reduced
the amount of smoke on the battlefield, and made it easier for men
to remain concealed when firing.
British Army adopted the .303 inch Lee Metford rifle, with a
magazine containing eight rounds, loaded by drawing back and then
pushing forward the weapon's bolt.
The Lee-Metford initially used black powder while a smokeless
cartridge was developed, and this necessitated further changes,
culminating in the adoption of the Lee-Enfield rifle, using a
similar bolt to that in the Lee-Metford but with rifling designed
at the government's arms factory at Enfield Lock.
IN MATCHLOCK MUSKET
used in the late 19th and early 20th century in some parts of the
IN WHEEL-LOCK CAVALRY CARBINE
loading wheel lock) 16th century
widely used by the Military
BORE BROWN BESS
loading flintlock) 1700
to 4 rounds per minute
IN FERGUSON RIFLE
by Durs Egg
rounds per minute
IN SEA-SERVICE FLINTLOCK PISTOL
loading flintlock) 1790
used for military pistols
IN BAKER RIFLE
loading flintlock) 1800
in quantity and used by British Rifle Regiments
BORE NEW LAND PATTERN BROWN BESS FLINTLOCK MUSKET
loading flintlock) 1803
new design did not entirely replace earlier models
IN BRUNSWICK RIFLE
loading percussion cap) 1838
to 270m with sights
the Baker in British service from 1838 - belted ball unstable in
cross winds - remained as standard until 1851 (and in India until
1870) being replaced by the Minie
MM ZUNDNADELGEWEHR (DREYSE NEEDLE FIRE) M1841 RIFLE
action needle fire) 1848
range 300m to 400m with sights
by the Prussian Army against the Danes and the
IN MINIE RIFELED MUSKET
loaded percussion lock) 1852
by the French and manufactured in England by Tower
to 830m with sights
issue rifle for the British Infantry but replaced in 1853 by the
Enfield Pattern - used in the Crimea
IN MODEL 1853 RIFLE
loading percussion cap) 1853
to 730m with sights possibly up to 900m
by the British Army and used in the Crimean War, the Indian Mutiny,
and the American Civil War
IN CAPPING BREECH LOADING CARBINE
loading Maynard tape primer) 1857
to 548m with sights
extensively by the Americans in the Civil War while the British
experimented with and used similar versions, namely British Terry,
Westley Richards, American Sharpes, and Greene while the Cavalry
used the Westley Richards - the term "sharpshooter" originated from
the use of this gun
loading percussion cap) 1859
to 822m with sights possibly up to 900m
by the British Rifle Brigade for a while but was not adopted due to
its tendency to foul the bore but many were purchased by the
Confederate States of America and used in the American Civil
IN SPENCER REPEATING CARBINE
action rolling block) 1862
successful repeating rifle - 7
round tube magazine in butt - only used late on in the American
Civil War and the Spencer company was bought out by Oliver
Winchester to ensure demise of competition
IN WESTLEY-RICHARDS MONKEY TAIL CARBINE
loading single capping) 1863
British Cavalry carbine issued until 1871 when it was replaced by
the carbine version of the Martini
loading centre fire cartridge) 1865
and England by Enfield
to 731m with sights
British chose the American Snider as a stop gap rifle for the
Infantry before the introduction of the Martini-Henry rifle from
1871, but the Snider remained in service as late as
.44 IN MODEL WINCHESTER 1866 CARBINE
action repeater) 1866
round magazine - used extensively by the Turkish against the
Russians - the outcome of this war sparked off demands all round
Europefor repeating rifles
MODEL 1866 CHASSEPOT RIFLE
action needle fire) 1867
to 1200m with sights
by the French army and remained the standard until
MM VETTERLI VITALI MAGAZINE RIFLE
action breech loading) 1867
by Brescia (Vetterli)
round magazine - adopted by the Swiss Confederation and later by
the Italian Army
IN MARTINI-HENRY RIFLE
loading pivoted block) 1887
to 1280m with sights
original Martini-Henry was adopted in 1871 to replace the stop-gap
Snider converted Enfields - the original rifle was re-barrelled in
parallel with change to the .303 ammunition and as a consequence
Martini actions occur with a wide variety of calibres and rifling -
remained in service well into the 1900s when it was finally
replaced by the Lee bolt action
LEE METFORD RIFLE MK 1
to 1462m with sights
.303 calibre bolt action was adopted by the Britishin 1888 which
incorporated the bolt mechanism with the Metfords rifling - the
introduction of cordite as a propellant made the Metford rifling
too shallow and in 1895 the existing rifle was re-barrelled and
issued as the Lee Enfield
7.92 MM GEWEHR M1898 MAUSER
to 2000m with sights
of the most successful bolt action rifles produced and used by most
countries of the world - was the principle rifle for the German
Army in World War 1 and in a shorter version in World War
of an Antique Gun
Revolutionary War Period Dutch-Made Musket, ca.
73 caliber, smoothbore, iron barrel with bottom-mounted bayonet lug
and secured to the stock by three iron bands, the uppermost with
brass blade sight and long under-rib to protect the fore-stock.
Each band with a "CT" inspector's mark.
Full-length Beech/Birch' stock with "Fish-Belley" butt and cut-out
Typical Dutch/German type lock with flat gooseneck hammer and
faceted integral powder-pan without a fence.
Iron hardware, includes the buttplate, trigger-guard and
Original flintlock configuration with original lock components and
The stock is very good overall and retains 85% of its original
Several minor handling marks and an old repaired crack under the
lock and sideplate.
The barrel and hardware with lightly cleaned
Original iron trumpet-head ramrod and sling-swivels. Overall length
SABU The organizing and controlling body of Target Rifle and
Free Rifle Shooting in South Africa
The South African Military History Society
The BBC Information Site ... History
MILITARY RIFLES IN THE AGE OF TRANSITION
(Non-U.S.) Black Powder Metallic Cartridge, Military Rifles
from about 1865 to about 1888
(A Research, Photo-Identification & Information Website)
Rifles and Pistols by
Jeremy Flack pub. Sunburst Books ISBN 1-85778-128-7
An Historical Guide to Arms and Armour by Stephen Bull pub. Cassell
The African Elephant (Twilight in Eden) by Roger L. DiSilvestro
pub. John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN 0-471-53207-X
Wars (1) Paperback; November
15 1996; 48 pages; ISBN: 1855326124
Over the space of two centuries, the original Dutch settlers of
South Africa, augmented by a trickle of refugees from a succession
of religious wars in France and Germany, grew into a hardy breed.
In time, these people came to think of themselves as white Africans
or 'Afrikaners' though they were generally known to one another,
and outsiders, as 'Boers', meaning farmers. This book details the
fascinating history of the Boers from the 'Great Trek' of 1836-40,
through theirr many wars with such peoples as the Zulus and the
Pedi, to their final defeat of the Venda in 1898.
Zulu Wars Paperback; January
1 1976; 48 pages; ISBN: 0850452562
By the end of the nineteenth century the fame of the Zulu was
world-wide, and their army was one of the few non-European military
organisations to have become the subject of serious historical
study. Their very name is still synonymous with bravery, discipline
and military skill. This excellent addition to Osprey's Men-at-Arms
series tells the story of the Zulu's at war, from their rise to
unrivalled power under the fearsome Shaka to the final devastating
defeat against the British at Ulundi, detailing Zulu weapons and
tactics, and the famous battles in which they
November 9 1995; 64 pages; ISBN: 1855324741
Zulu military organisation was extremely sophisticated. Warriors
were organised into regiments with some form of basic uniform and
shields were state-manufactured and owned. Yet, in spite of this
sophistication, much of the Zulu's military outlook was extremely
primitive: firearms were ill understood, and between 1816 and 1906
the Zulu's maintained their primary reliance on hand-to-hand
fighting. In this book Ian Knight investigates Zulu weaponry in
detail, and also their society, beliefs and rituals, particularly
with regard to ceremonies conducted before and after battles.
Tactics, costume and customs are also carefully examined, making
this a thorough account of the Zulu warrior.
War 1879 Paperback; January
30 1992; 96 pages; ISBN: 1855321653
In the late 1870s the British Imperial administration in the Cape
colony in southern Africa began to view the Zulu kingdom as a
challenge to their authority.To contain this perceived threat, they
engineered a war. The early campaigns went terribly wrong, with the
decisive Zulu victory at Isandlwana. Ultimately however, the
British won the war. The Zulus, primarily reliant on their skill
with the stabbing spear, had no real defence or retaliation against
the massed firepower of professional British soldiers. Ian Castle
examines the British-Zulu war and its two key battles, Isandlwana
and Khambula, with excellent black and white photographs
accompanying the clear and detailed text.
Zulus Paperback; January
26 1989; 64 pages; ISBN: 0850458641
'A very remarkable people, the Zulu', the British Prime Minister,
Benjamin Disraeli, said on hearing of a fresh disaster in the war
of 1879, 'They defeat our generals; they convert our bishops; they
have settled the fate of a great European dynasty'. Remarkable
indeed, to have taken on the full might of the British Empire at
its height, and won, if not the war, at least some of the battles.
This book explains who the Zulus were, and how they achieved the
fame as warriors which they enjoy to this day.
Victoria's Enemies 1 Southern Africa Paperback; July 27
1989; 48 pages; ISBN: 085045901X
When Queen Victoria acceded to the British throne in June 1837,
British troops had recently concluded a war in southern Africa
against the Xhosa people, and the seeds were already sown for a
clash with the Boers. When she died in January 1901 Britain was
once more fighting the Boers, in one of the longest and most
costliest of the Imperial Colonial Wars. Southern Africa had proved
a cockpit of tension and conflict second only to the Indian
sub-continent. The causes of these troubles lay in the opposing
interests of a variety of competing colonies, independent white
republics, and black African states.
Drift 1879 Paperback; January
26 1996; 96 pages; ISBN: 1855325063
Rorke's Drift sums up some of the best traditions of the British
self-image: steadfastness against the odds, victory in adversity
and the thin red line. The British stand deserves to go down in
history as one of the most heroic actions of all time. The story of
a mere 150 British and Imperial soldiers defending an isolated
outpost against over 3,000 Zulu warriors summed up the experience
of the colonial adventure for the Victorians and remains part of
our heritage even today. Ian Knight recounts the course of this
famous conflict in which no less than 11 Victoria crosses were
Zulus and Matabele Warrior Nations Hardback 1998;
Glen Lyndon Dodds; ISBN 1-85409-381-9
The story of the two great warrior nations that held sway in much
of southern Africa during the first three-quarters of the 19th
century. Based on recent scholarship, it presents a lucid,
authoritative account of the histories of the Zulu and Matabele
nations, from their rise to power in the first half of the 19th
century to their downfall at white hands as the century drew
towards its close. Beginning with the reign of Shaka, the
controversial founder of the Zulu nation, moving on to the reign of
Dingane which witnessed bitter fighting between the Zulus and the
migrant Boers in engagements such as the epic Battle of Blood
River, and describing the civil wars of the Zulus before they found
themselves fighting for survival in the clamatic war of 1879
against imperial Britain which led to the subsequent incorporation
of Zululand into the British Empire. The chapters on the Matabele,
an offshoot of the Zulu, their emergence as a nation under
Mzilikazi, who clashed with both the Zulu and the Boers until their
defeat by the British in the 1890s concluding with a discussion of
recent events in Zulu and Matabele history, such as the end of
apartheid and Matabele involvement in the bloody war that resulted
in the creation of today's state of Zimbabwe.
die Gesetzesvorgabe des LG`s Hamburg vom 12.06 1998, Betreiber von
Link`s zu anderen Web-Seiten ggf. haftbar zu machen, distanzieren
wir uns ausdrücklich von sämmtlichen, durch uns verlinkten
Web-Seiten...! Wir haben keinerlei Einfluss auf deren inhaltliche